• Faucets and low-flow showerheads. These systems can reduce the flow out of a faucet from 15 to 17 l/min to 4.3 l/min depending on the case.
• Timers for faucets. Particularly suitable for public sinks and showers. Prevent the faucet is leaved open by accident but may produce a waste since you can not stop at will.
• Infrared detectors for faucets. Particularly suitable for public access toilets . It is the most efficient system but requires more maintenance and greater installation expense .
• Dual flush cisterns. The old toilets had a single discharge of about 10 liters, in modern ones we can choose from a 3-liter small download and a large 6 liter depending on usage. In public services it is important that the button does not lead to misunderstandings between each button is for that purpose , there are models that can be confusing.
• Urinals. Commonly used in public baths are very efficient , there are even some models that do not use water. For private use models already exist in the market sizes and attractive aesthetic.
• Recirculating hot water . These systems avoid wasting water while waiting for the water to the desired temperature out. Depending on where the water heating system this expenditure can be very important . In new construction, where the installation of thermal thermal solar is required to heat the water , the distance is usually larger because they must be placed on the outside of the building.
There are two types of recirculation:
– Hot water constantly. It keeps the water in the system constantly hot. When the water temperature drops the system is activated and recirculated. Access to hot water is instant so it is a very convenient system , but requires more power consumption.
– On demand hot water. The system only recirculate when we go to use. Access to the hot water is not instantaneous but requires a lower power consumption .
Landscape design and irrigation
The irrigation of the gardens can bea big waste of water so the study and detailed design of landscaped areas is essential for their rational use. Action will be taken on the following aspects :
• Choice of appropriate species. The choice of species suited to the climate of the area is particularly important for moderate water consumption. In addition, avoid wasting resources on species that never look satisfactorily or even die and have to be replaced. Also keep in mind the need to care for their maintenance, a plant that needs a lot of care in the hands of an inexperienced or low end dedicated person will not survive.
• Distribution of the species. When distributing the species is convenient to group for water needs in what are called hydrozones This will help to a more efficient irrigation. Putting high consumption spicies next to efficient ones is more difficult to provide the necessary water to each, watering too little one or too much the other.
This is especially visible after a rain , the plants whith a high water consumption will run out water before the low consumption ones. If we water at that time (both are in the same line irrigation) you are watering lower consumption plants unnecessarily. If instead we wait for the higher consumption ones not to have water available , the other species will be a few days without water.
• Other designing measures. Besides the species and their grouping there are other measures to reduce water usage in the garden, as the use of a suitable soil , use mulch or gravel decorative areas. Use as far as possible xeriscape techniques.
After the garden is well designed we must ensure that each plant receives the right amount of water and efficiently . In order to achive that goal, we will do the next:
• Irrigation network design. It will be held on the basis of consumption of each plant , type of water used and soil characteristics. This will allow all plants receive an irrigation volume according to their needs . Will be provided information and a methodology for the network to be subsequently modified without altering its effectiveness.
• Automation. To do watering operations in an effective and convenient way will be automated in detail so that we can adjust the timing and frequency of irrigation and watering in the most appropriate and without the necessity of any person to be present.
• Advice for irrigation operations ( custom watering schedules). Detailed information on the consumption of the garden, the response of these meteorological factors and water retention capacity of the soil after a rain is provided , all summarized in a custom irrigation schedule oriented in time and frequency irrigation. If watering operations are carried out by qualified staff, all the information necessary to perform a water balance in the soil daily is provided to be even more efficient.
Evaporation control in artificial water bodies
Evaporation is a physical process that occurs by the mere fact that a mass of water having a humidity of 100% is in contact with air having a lower humidity, and nature tends to balance it. The more humidity difference is (drier air) the more evaporation will be.
Evaporation from open water bodies is a factor to be taken into account. One square meter of pool, pond or fountain consume more water than the most demanding grass. By having an order of magnitude, in northern Spain evaporation average 1,000 liters per square meter to 2,000 or more in areas such as the Ebro, Tajo, Guadalquivir and Segura. A pool in these areas lost by evaporation more than their own volume per year . These expenses must be taken into account when designing these areas. There are ways to mitigate these losses:
• Wind safekeeping. One of the factors that more affect to evaporation is wind. The humid air resulting from the evaporation of the water is shifted due to the wind and replaced with more dry air , which causes a higher rate of evaporation.
• Covers. Install a cover for the months not used . If installed properly, almost completely prevents evaporation, also prevents them from falling leaves and substances that make algae proliferate, greatly reducing cleaning operations, which reduce the waste of water and save time and chemicals. There are many models on the market , from fixed covers to mobile ones that are easily collected or hard structures that allow you to enjoy the pool, even in winter.